Application log is the traditional way to monitor an application/service. On *nix-based system, Syslog is a common but powerful tool for centrally monitoring applications logs. The primary use of syslog is for system management as capturing log data is critical for sysadmin, devOp team, or system analysts, etc. This log data is helpful in case of investigating/troubleshooting problems and maintaining healthy functioning of systems.
Syslog offers a standard log format and a standard alert system with different severity levels to applications in form of a log API. Log daemons such as rsyslog are versatile and flexible with various configuration options that enable different way to interact with the logs: log to file, log to a remote server via network (TCP, UDP sockets), log to local Unix domain socket. Log clients or log analytic applications can collect log data from the log daemon via these interfaces.
Although it is feasible to directly read log messages from the regular syslog output files, it is more preferable to collect log data from the daemon using the socket interface since socket is more suitable for data streaming. TCP/UDP sockets can be used to access log data from the network (TCP/IP). But if the application runs locally on the same machine as the log daemon, Unix domain socket (UDS) may be the best option.
Unix Domain Socket is an inter-process communication mechanism that allows bidirectional data exchange between processes running on the same machine. Thus, UDSs can avoid some checks and operations (like routing); which makes them faster and lighter than IP sockets.
In this post, we will learn how to collect log data from syslog via UDS in C. We will use rsyslog as log daemon in this post.
A use case will be presented at the end of the post.